1. Preparation process
In the preparation stage of the distribution center, we should first clarify the tasks, objectives and relevant background of the construction of the distribution center. After determining the necessity and feasibility of the construction of the distribution center, a preparation group can be established for specific planning. The preparation team should involve many members, including the personnel of the company, civil engineering department and some experienced experts or consultants, so as to avoid one sidedness in the preparation work. In addition, the preparation team should further confirm the necessity of the construction of the distribution center according to the basic principles of enterprise business decision-making, so as to avoid blind preparation.
The fundamental purpose of the establishment of distribution centers is to reduce freight costs. Without sufficient cargo flow, the economies of scale of distribution centers cannot be brought into play. First, the construction of distribution centers must be built in areas with sufficient freight volume. Second, the expansion and development of cities need to be fully considered to ensure their sustainable pivotal role. Third, the location of the distribution center needs to be close to important transportation lines to facilitate the distribution operation. If railways and ships are used as means of transportation, proximity to railway stations, ports, etc. should be considered. Fourth, when determining the location of the distribution center, human resources factors such as the source of employees and salary level should be considered. If the population near the location of the distribution center is small and the transportation is inconvenient, it is not easy to recruit grass-roots workers; If the salary level in nearby areas is too high, it will also affect the recruitment of grass-roots workers.
2) Natural factors
The scale of the geographical area of distribution center responsible for distribution operations shall be commensurate with its size. The terrain also has a great impact on the infrastructure investment of the distribution center warehouse. The shape can be rectangular rather than irregular; Easy to keep materials dry; Close to rivers and seas, pay attention to the local water level and beware of groundwater overflow. The distribution center shall be far away from downtown or residential areas, there shall be no factories producing corrosive gas, dust and radiant heat around, and a certain safe distance shall be kept from units prone to fire. Natural disasters such as rainfall, typhoon, earthquake and rivers in the natural environment also have a great impact on the distribution center. Pay attention to avoid the tuyere when selecting the site, because the construction of tuyere will accelerate the aging of items stacked in the open air.
3) Policy factors
Policy factors include preferential measures for express delivery enterprises in geographical regions (such as land provision and tax reduction), urban planning (such as land development and road construction plan), regional industrial policies, etc. These policies help reduce operating costs.
2. Principle of distribution center location
1) Adaptability principle
The location of the distribution center shall adapt to the national or regional economic development guidelines and policies and the freight volume distribution of express enterprises.
2) Principle of coordination
The location of distribution center should consider the freight network of express enterprises in the whole country or region as a large system, so that the distribution center can develop in coordination with the whole system in terms of regional distribution, freight operation productivity, technical level and so on.
3) Economic principle
The cost of the site selection of the distribution center mainly includes three parts: construction cost, freight cost and operating cost. The location of the distribution center is determined in the urban area, suburban area or outer suburban area. Its future construction scale and construction cost, freight and operating costs are different. The lowest total cost should be taken as the economic principle when selecting the location.
4) Strategic principles
The location of distribution centers should have a strategic vision. The first is to consider the overall situation, and the second is to consider the long-term. The local should obey the overall situation, and the current interests should obey the long-term interests. We should not only consider the current actual needs, but also consider the possibility of future development.